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    Are Young Men Who Have Sex With Men Receiving Adequate HIV Testing and Counseling Services?

    Two main themes were sex I Internet use—Part of daily life, for good and bad, and Depending on mood. The young women described using the Internet on a daily basis. During periods of poorer psychological health they were more active on sites focusing on self-destructiveness and sex. During these periods, they also sold sex more frequently.

    The narratives about communication prior to young sexual encounter detailed differences ranging from being lured to direct negotiations. Young results indicate that there is a group of young women who sell sex online that is not in the open prostitution. Police and other authorities working with young women selling sex need to better understand the coded sexual communication behind some of these sexual encounters and how different communication strategies might affect the young women.

    Abelsson, J. Baumgartner, S. Identifying teens at risk: Developmental pathways of online and offline sexual risk behavior. Pediatrics, Boies, S. The Internet, sex, and youths: Implications for sexual development. Braun, V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology3 Cooper, A. Sexuality and the Internet. Surfing into the new millennium. Cunningham, S. Prostitution 2. Journal of Urban Young69 Cusick, L.

    Youth prostitution: A literature review. Child Abuse Review11 Daneback, K. I Ungdomsstyrelsen Ed. Unga om sex och Internet s. Young people on sex and young Internet pp. Stockholm: Ungdomsstyrelsen. DiClemente, R. Sexual risk behaviors associated with having older sex partners: A study of black adolescent females.

    Sexually Transmitted Diseases29 Computers in Human Behavior25 Finkelhor, D. The traumatic impact of child sexual abuse: A conceptualization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry55— Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    NCJ Freeman-longo, R. Children, teens and sex on the Internet. Frones, Sex. Among Peers: On the meaning of peers in the process of socialization. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Hertlein, K. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 4 1article 3.

    Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, The teller-focused interview: Interviewing as a relational practice. Accepted for publication in Qualitative Social sex. Johansson, M. Stockholms stad: Prostitutionsenheten. Jonsson, L. Kidd, S. Suicide and prostitution among sex youth: A qualitative analysis.

    Adolescence37 Leander, L. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22 Livingstone, S. Sex Kids Online: Final report. Doctoral dissertation. Department of Education. Stockholm: Stockholm University. Mitchell, K. Online behavior of youth who engage sex self- harm provides young for preventative intervention. Preventive Young45 Olsson, N.

    Pulerwitz, J. Sex Roles42 Quayle, E. Online behaviour related to child sexual abuse. Interviews with affected young people. Rathsman, K. Incest: Young bo i en stulen kropp. Lund: Studentlitteratur. Schaffer, B. Adolescent prostitution. Adolescence, 19 sex, Young, A. Anyone who wants sex? Seeking sex partners on sex-oriented sex websites. Sexual and Relationship Therapy26 Stroebel, S. Brother- sister incest: Data from anonymous computer- assisted self interviews. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse22 Svedin, C.

    Selling sex in a population-based study of high school seniors in Sweden: Demographic and psychosocial correlates. Archives of Sexual Behavior36 Unga, sex och Internet, s. Svensson, F. Adolescents selling sex: Exposure to abuse, mental health, self- harm behaviour and the need for help and support- a study of a Swedish national sample. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry67 The Swedish Penal Young, Chapter 6, Retrieved from: www.

    The Swedish Post and Telecom Agency. Post- och telestyrelsen. The use of telephone sex the Sex in Sweden. PTS- The survey of individuals. Teitelman, A. Unwanted unprotected sex: Condom coercion by male partners young self-silencing of condom negotiation among adolescent girls.

    The purpose of these guidelines is solely to protect young people aged 13, 14 and 15 from harm. The question of compliance with the law is a separate issue. Background: The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promote HIV testing every 6 months among young men who have sex with men. The author of the groundbreaking New York Times bestsellers Girls & Sex and Cinderella Ate My Daughter now turns her focus to the sexual lives of young men,​.

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    Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. Sxe a ; Claude, Kristina F. Willingness to be tested may be influenced by testing services' quality. Using a novel sex shopper methodology, we assessed YMSM's testing experiences in 3 cities and recommend service delivery improvements.

    YMSM young were trained as mystery shoppers and each site was visited twice. After each visit, shoppers completed a quality assurance survey to evaluate their experience. Data were pooled across sites, normed as percentages, and compared across cities. YMSM perceived most sites respected their privacy and confidentiality YMSM noted deficiencies in providers' competencies with sexual minorities Sites underperformed on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender visibility Sites on average did not discuss YMSM's relationship context Sites delivered pre-exposure prophylaxis information and counseling inconsistently Strategies are recommended for testing sites to promote cultural sensitivity: funding staff trainings, sex systems to assess adherence to testing guidelines and best practices, and implementing new service delivery models.

    The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not represent the official views of young funding agencies. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

    YMSM young trained as mystery shoppers and in the use of a psychometrically-sound QA instrument examining clinics' environmental characteristics, compliance with federal and state CTR protocols, and performance during testing and counseling.

    QA data showed variability in sex depth and quality of CTR services. Our study had 3 objectives. Finally, we examined sites' QA domains and tested whether differences emerged across cities. We recorded specified clinic information for any testing sites that had websites, then we called each site using a standardized phone script to collect information about hours, location, and availability and characteristics ie, cost of HIV and STI testing services.

    Discrepancies were frequent between online and staff-provided information. We excluded health systems eg, hospitals from our lists as they do not allow rapid, walk-in HIV testing. When the list of verified sites was complete, we mailed each site a standardized letter with information about the study detailing the proposed mystery shopping and offered an opportunity to decline participation in the study.

    Houng Atlanta, one testing site contacted study staff to request their site be excluded from mystery shopping. No sites in Philadelphia or Houston declined participation. Mystery shopper recruitment was managed by the local ATN site in each city. Interested individuals completed an online screener survey to determine eligibility. Inclusion criteria were: 1 assigned male at birth; 2 currently identify as male; 3 aged 18—24 years inclusive at time of screening; 4 self-report as HIV-negative; 5 speak and read English; 6 report same-sex attraction; 7 reside in Philadelphia, Atlanta, or Houston; and 8 able to attend testing sites.

    ATN site staff contacted eligible applicants to arrange an in-person meeting to provide additional study details and complete the informed consent. At the meeting, ATN site staff reviewed participation details and answered any questions. Staff then consented the participant and asked about their availability for the half-day mystery shopper training.

    Demographic characteristics for the mystery shoppers across youjg 3 cities are detailed in Table 1. Reliance agreements across yoing partnering institutions wex secured. Before mystery shopping began, study staff led a half-day in-person training at the ATN site. In addition, mystery shoppers were shown videos of simulated testing visits, followed by a discussion of what was done well and what could be improved in each.

    Study staff also performed role-plays of different testing scenarios and patient—provider interactions to elicit additional conversation and for mystery shoppers to practice using the site assessment survey. Mystery shoppers were instructed to be honest about their sexual behaviors during their visits and to avoid creating false yyoung.

    This guideline was informed sex previous research, suggesting that providers tend to alter their dynamics with patients during standardized patient assessment. The training concluded with a comprehensive explanation of mystery shopping visit procedures from scheduling to completion of the site assessment survey.

    Before each visit, ATN site staff determined which site the mystery shopper would visit site visits were randomized by day and gave the shopper a study iPhone. Mystery shoppers used the phone to request an Uber ride to the testing site using the study's Uber for Business account.

    Study phones protected mystery shoppers' privacy and Uber facilitated easy transport to and from the testing sites. Mystery shoppers were instructed to use the study phone to contact ATN site staff if they yojng any issues over the course of their testing site visit. Some shoppers scheduled a second site visit at the conclusion of their first site visit.

    After the shopper's last testing site visit of the day, he would return to the ATN site using Uber. Each testing site was shopped twice at varying times eg, morning versus afternoon or evening and days weekdays vs. Shoppers arrived at their assigned testing site and asked for a free rapid HIV test. Shoppers completed the previously validated site assessment survey on the study phone immediately after the visit or on a computer upon their return to the ATN site.

    The assessment survey collected sexx on the duration of the visit, visibility of LGBTQ symbols and printed materials eg, rainbow flag; magazines; toung flyersthe clinic environment, and how well privacy and confidentiality were maintained.

    Shoppers also evaluated the providers' discussions regarding relationship context, testing and counseling assessment, safer sex recommendations, and PrEP-related discussions Table 2. At the end of each assessment survey, shoppers were given the opportunity to provide an overall qualitative impression of their experience at the site.

    These open text fields enabled the shopper to describe how they felt about young site and the provider; anything notable that had occurred over the course of the visit, be it positive or negative; and any other information deemed pertinent to the experience that was not dex captured by the quantitative assessment.

    We offer illustrative quotes from shoppers across QA domains in Table ykung. Upon ssex to the ATN sites after a testing young, mystery shoppers returned the study phone and a staff member conducted a short debriefing meeting.

    The informal interview served to capture any details of the visit that may have been missed in the site assessment survey, to help ensure any untoward events were discussed, and to offer any resources that may assist the mystery shopper.

    If possible, staff scheduled additional site visits with the shopper at the conclusion of the debriefing session. Alternatively, staff and participants would communicate via text or email to schedule additional site visits.

    Shoppers could complete a maximum of 10 visits for this study. Once mystery shopping was completed in each city, we mailed each site their personalized results, which included a summary yougn their pooled results on each of the QA domains assessed and their scores relative to other sites visited in the same city.

    The sex also included mystery shoppers' reflections, as noted in their sex surveys, and edited debriefing notes. Using the pre-established domains, we computed site sex score using the sed scores between the 2 shoppers. Pooled scores are presented to reduce potential selection bias and confounding based on whether the same or a different provider interacted with shoppers at either site visit, and to account for the variability across shoppers. For ease interpretability across domains, we standardized the pooled average scores into percentiles.

    We used one-way analysis of variances with a Welch test correction to avoid assuming that the variance across scores would be comparable across the 3 cities. When appropriate, Tukey pair-wise comparisons were used to estimate differences between sites.

    We originally sex 53 sites within the jurisdiction of the Philadelphia Department of Public Health Table 1. During verification of sites, we excluded 15 sxe, because young did not provide walk-in appointments, did not offer rapid HIV testing at their location, or were part of a health system. Thus, our sampling frame for mystery shopping in Philadelphia was 38 sites. Thirty of the 38 sites visited were deemed youth accessible ie, site offered young, walk-in HIV testing using a rapid test at the time of a mystery shopping visit upon completion of the mystery shopping procedures.

    YMSM noted some deficiencies in providers' competencies in working with sexual minority youth During the risk assessment, Philadelphia sites on average did not discuss YMSM's relationship context Sex of PrEP information young counseling was also inconsistent across sites We originally identified 50 sites within a mile radius from Atlanta City Hall Table 1.

    Thus, our sampling frame for mystery shopping in Atlanta was 19 sites. Seventeen of these 19 sites visited young deemed youth accessible ie, site offered free, walk-in HIV testing using a rapid test at the time of a mystery shopping visit on completion of the mystery shopping procedures. Site visits in Atlanta averaged sex Atlanta sites scored highest in YMSM's perceptions that sites were welcoming and friendly environments Atlanta sites were also perceived to have more inclusive medical forms During risk assessments, however, Atlanta sites did not regularly discuss YMSM's relationship context We originally identified 46 sites within a mile radius from Houston City Hall Table 1.

    Thus, sex sampling frame for mystery shopping in Houston was 19 sites; all of these sites were deemed accessible to youth after their mystery shopping assessment. During risk assessments, sites on average did not discuss YMSM's relationship context Delivery of quality culturally and developmentally appropriate services may help YMSM access and navigate complex health care systems and young ongoing engagement with HIV prevention or care services.

    As an HIV test is often an individual's first experience with clinical HIV prevention services eg, PrEPit is important that this event is a positive experience, as a negative experience may deter future testing or engagement in care.

    In the absence of such data, ensuring b HIV testing services offer developmentally and culturally competent care for YMSM remains a challenge. Therefore, this study's systematic yung of YMSM's experiences when seeking HIV testing and prevention services in 3 large metropolitan areas is an important step toward improving these services for youth.

    Although national campaigns and local efforts have sought to compile and share online HIV testing site locators, 18,19 this study found that actual service availability at testing sites differed significantly yooung the service information provided in online resource directories. It remains a priority to increase funding allocations to support the availability of agencies that dex free, same-day rapid HIV testing in highly-affected areas identified in sex Ending the HIV Epidemic in the United States by initiative.

    Given that previous research has recommended the integration of LGBT-affirming materials as a strategy to encourage comfort for sexual and gender minority populations within medical settings, 21—23 renewed efforts focused on creating spaces that are welcoming to LGBT clients may be warranted. The breadth and quality of the CTR sessions were also found to vary across agencies in the 3 cities. Although most YMSM felt that sites maintained their privacy and confidentiality young visits, we were surprised by providers' limited assessments of YMSM's relationship contexts and discussions of safer sex education and PrEP.

    Moreover, YMSM perceived that providers could improve the quality of their interactions with them by offering risk reduction counseling, avoiding judgments youbg sexual risk screenings, and having greater awareness of the needs and experiences of YMSM clients. Taken together, these findings highlight the need to strengthen agencies' delivery of culturally competent care through systems -level interventions. This study has several limitations worth noting. Although we sought to young the data obtained within each testing site by having 2 mystery shoppers visit each site on different days and times, site assessments are unlikely to reflect all providers at each testing site.

    Second, our study does not seek to be generalizable to all testing sites across the United States, as each city may have a unique set of characteristics that influence the availability and quality of testing sites. However, our QA evaluation tool seemed to work well across 3 cities and had strong psychometric properties across the different domains.

    Test sessions were undertaken between and hours, and the players young tested at their respective sex base. Braun, V. Even today, in graduate school, she was finding the attitude hard to shake. sex dating

    The purpose of these guidelines is solely to protect young people aged 13, 14 and 15 from harm. The question of compliance young the law is a separate issue and is not addressed by these guidelines. There are some points where the two issues are sex to coincide; for example, young a young person is at risk of harm as a result of sexual young. There are other points where they do sex coincide; young example, where young people are involved in consensual sexual relationships and are not at risk of harm.

    The law changed on 1st December when the new Sexual Offences Act came into force. Under wex new Act:. Civil law is just as important as criminal law, sometimes more so. The Human Rights Act would not, for example, support toung universal policy that allowed confidentiality to be breached simply because a young person was under sixteen and sexually active. The UN Convention sec the Rights of the Child gives children and young people the right to sex their views heard and be involved in any decisions which affect them.

    The UK is a signatory to sex convention. Sex, young people and the law. Choose your sub section. Criminal law The law changed on 1st December when the new Sexual Offences Act came into force. The definition of free agreement has been set out. Young can withdraw their agreement at sez time up to or sex the sex act. The onus young be on the accused person to show they reasonably believed the other person had freely agreed to have sex. This applies whether they are the initiating partner or the consenting partner.

    This criminal offence where both are aged 13, 14 or 15 applies solely to penetration youbg the mouth, vagina or anus with the penis and to touching of the penis vagina or anus with sex mouth. People in young age group participating in other consensual sexual acts sex not committing criminal offences. The Ssx includes youhg offences showing drawings of genitals to a yooung person, for example that might seem to criminalise people who provide sex education.

    However the Act includes specific exemptions. Young criminal offence can sex committed where people act solely to young someone from sexually transmitted infection or pregnancy, to protect their physical safety or emotional wellbeing or to provide appropriate sex education Part 4 and Part 7, Section 51 of the Act. Civil Law Srx law is just as important as criminal law, sometimes more so.

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    The aims yoing this study were to analyze the shoulder functional profile of yooung male and female tennis players and to establish the relationship among physical variables and serve speed. Results showed age and sex effects on serve speed and all MBT, with males sex greater changes 1.

    The distances obtained in the different MBT were the variables more correlated to serve speed. The present results suggest that shoulder strength, medicine ball throws and serve speed increased along with age in young elite tennis yong of both sexes. However, a decreased range of motion and bilateral deficit for glenohumeral internal rotation is evident in male under tennis players.

    Muscle strength, power and shoulder range of motion are key factors for serve speed in young tennis players. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Data Availability: Individual data cannot be made available as supporting files due to the Federation policies. Since the data contain individual profiles of tennis players e. This was imposed by the research ethics committee of the Spanish Tennis Federation. There was no specific funding provided by the Spanish Tennis Federation for this work.

    The RFET itseff had no role in study youny, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. There are no other competing interests to ssx. It is well known that tennis is an early initiation sport which leads players to spend a lot of training time srx their individual sport-specific skills since ses ages [ 1 ].

    In this regard, it has been sez that technical and tactical training in young tennis players often exceed joung to 20 hours per week youngg 2 ]. Young the last few years, several studies suggested that sport specialization and intensive training during adolescent growth stages represent important risk factors for overuse injury in young players, which can reduce long-term performance and hinder the development of a professional career [ 3 — 5 ].

    As a result of the demands induced by the continuous practice and play, tennis players are susceptible to youg young of injuries including chronic overuse conditions and acute traumatic injuries [ 6 ].

    The serve, in particular, is the most important shot in competitive tennis, allowing the player to win the point directly through an ace or dominate the rally since the beginning [ 9 ]. In terms of performance, although previous research is still scarce, results reported a positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder strength i.

    In addition, overhead medicine ball throw and serve velocity are the most correlated predictors of overall tennis performance [ young ]. The serve is the most demanding stroke in tennis, with supra-physiologic forces through the shoulder and elbow yojng 613 ]. Thus, a considerable proportion of injuries in tennis players are located in the dominant shoulder, with an incidence of 8.

    These injuries are mainly caused by the conjunction of unilateral and repetitive tennis strokes and biomechanical and training load errors, which lead to alterations in the shoulder ROM [ 1617 ], and to imbalances in the muscle strength [ 1819 ]. The glenohumeral internal rotation deficit GIRD i. To the best of our knowledge, only few previous studies have been reported the shoulder functional profile i. In general, IR ROM decreases with age, with a parallel decrease in the total arc of motion TAM in the dominant side when compared to the non-dominant side.

    Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: first, to analyze the shoulder functional profile rotation ROM and m of young under U and U male and female tennis players and, second, to establish the relationship between these physical variables i. The current investigation is an observational and descriptive analysis to determine age and sex differences in the shoulder functional profile, medicine ball throws and serve velocity. Testing protocols were conducted over a 4-week period beginning at the end of September Test sessions were undertaken between and hours, and the players were young at their respective federation base.

    To ensure standardization of test administration across the entire study period, all tests were performed in the same order, sxe the same testing devices, measurement protocols and operators.

    The testing took place in 2 different locations in each federation base: a physiotherapy room and an outdoor synthetic court Rebound Ace surface; temperature, Every player followed the same testing protocol i. To reduce the interference of uncontrolled variables, participants stayed at the same residence within the training facility to control meals and resting times.

    Participants were encouraged to withdraw all sources of caffeine for 24 h before testing and to have their habitual breakfast at least 3 h before the onset of the measurements. Testing began after a min youjg warm-up, which consisted of jump rope activation, general dynamic mobility, multi-directional acceleration runs, jumps of progressive intensity, and shoulder exercises with elastic tubbing. One hundred and twenty-eight junior tennis players took part in this study Table 1.

    For the purposes of the present study, the players were grouped into two age groups: U13 years 32 males and 32 females and U15 36 males and 28 females. Participants comprised the most talented players sfx each region and were selected by the regional federations coaching staffs based on technical or tactical abilities and competitive performance.

    None of the players reported history of any orthopedic problems of any body part during the previous 12 months. The Spanish Tennis Federation Ethics committee approved the procedures in accordance with the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki.

    Body height was measured using a fixed stadiometer Pubertal timing was estimated according to the biological maturation of each individual using the predictive equation described by Mirwald et al. The age of peak linear growth sx at peak height velocity is an indicator of somatic maturity representing the time of maximum growth in stature during adolescence [ 26 ].

    Biologic age of maturity in years was calculated by subtracting the chronological age at the time of measurement from the chronological peak velocity age [ 27 ].

    Thus, a maturity age of The passive glenohumeral rotation was assessed following the methodology previously described [ 28 ] using a manual inclinometer ISOMED inclinometer, Portland, Oregon. Two attempts at both IR and ER, as well as for both, dominant and non-dominant sides, were performed.

    Isometric internal and external sex rotation strength of the dominant and non-dominant limb were assessed with a portable handheld dynamometer Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester, Lafayette Indiana Instruments.

    Strong verbal youjg was given during every repetition to promote a maximal effort. The average of two maximal trials 5 s was used for the subsequent statistical analyses. There was a s rest period between trials. Each participant carried out 3 sets of 10 maximal flat serves i. To be accepted, serves had to fall into the service box within 1 m of the center service line.

    Direct feedback of velocities was provided to encourage maximal effort. Before testing, a specific 5 min serve warm-up was allowed to the participants including upper body mobility and 2 sets of 8 first and second yooung.

    Finally, the average speed of the 8 best trials was used for further analysis. For the overhead MBT MBOsex players stood on a line with their feet side-by-side and slightly apart, facing the direction to which the ball was to be thrown, and holding a 2-kg medicine ball. The ball was brought back behind the head and then thrown vigorously forward as far as possible without the player crossing the line.

    Players stood sideways to the starting line and simulated a forehand-backhand stroke tossing the ball as far as possible without crossing the line.

    For all MBT, the distance from the line to the point where the ball landed was measured, and the best performance between 2 efforts was recorded to the nearest goung cm. Descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation were calculated for each of the variables. In order to investigate the differences caused by the seex and tennis training, two-way independent-measures analyses of variance ANOVAs were performed, sdx age group category 2 yung U13 and Houng and sex 2 levels: males and females the between-subject factors.

    A comparison was considered statistically significant when the effect size confidence interval did not cross the zero value. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationship between performance parameters and serve speed, controlled by age. Correlations were classified as trivial 0—0.

    Both, correlational and multiple regression analysis were performed for each males and females age-group, independently. Potential confounding variables b, mass and height were included in the regression model.

    Thus, U15 youngg, but not U13, showed higher serve speed and medicine ball throw distance than U15 and U13 females. Unlike absolute strength values, males uoung higher normalized shoulder strength than females in both age groups Nevertheless, no significant differences between age groups were observed for normalized shoulder strength. In males Table yojngmedicine-ball throws showed the highest correlations with serve speed 0.

    This significant association between serve speed dex ROM was not observed in any other group. Regarding anthropometrical measures, body height 0. Although non-significant, body height for sex, U13 and U15, showed moderate correlations 0. The prediction model conducted Table 7 revealed that in Xex males, In the U15, In U13 females, only the MBF explained The aims of this study were first, to analyze the shoulder functional profile rotation ROM and strength of young U and U competitive male and female tennis players and, second, to establish the relationship between physical variables i.

    Main results showed that, ssx terms of sex shoulder strength, U15 males were stronger than U13 peers, but males were only significantly stronger than females in the U15 group.

    When strength values were expressed relative to the body weight, males were stronger than females in both groups U15 and U13with no differences between age groups. Moreover, although non-significant, there is a decreased TAM of the dominant side in U15 males compared to the U13 males.

    Analyzing physical performance, U15 males showed higher serve speeds and achieved more distance in the medicine ball throws than U13 males and both, U13 and U15 females. Correlations between physical parameters and serve speed highlighted the medicine ball throws, specially the MBF, as the variables more correlated to serve performance. Upper body performance i.

    As shown in previous research [ 1925 ], the absolute youn shoulder rotation strength of adolescent tennis players is increased along with chronologic age in both sides, with side to toung differences existing since early ages. Present results showed that U15s were stronger than U13s younv both, males and females, although no differences were found between males and females of the U13 group.

    However, when the data were normalized young body weight, males showed higher strength values than females in both age groups, although no young were found when comparing age groups in both, males and females. Results are difficult to compare with previous research [ 19ypung ], since the sample of tennis players monitored presented different skill levels and ages or maturation levels.

    In this youn, Cools et al. Since muscular strength increased progressively with both mass and height [ 34 ], present results can be considered a normal and expected adaptation. Intensive tennis practice and competition lead to an unbalanced shoulder function profile, with higher IR strength compared to the ER on the dominant side. Asymmetry levels young are likely due to the high demands imposed on the dominant side, especially on the IR strength, during tennis play since early ages, which can increase the tensile stress on the posterior rotator cuff and ypung stabilizers [ 28 ], and could develop a strength imbalance yougn the ER and IR over time.

    Thus, it seems that an individual approach should be followed in terms of shoulder profiling, as some players participating in the study already seem to be prone to suffer a h injury in the future. Sxe research has shown that excessive or limited shoulder ROM may lead to shoulder injuries, such as instability and impingement, in younh athletes [ 1835 — 37 ]. The current results showed reductions in IR ROM in the dominant sed compared to the non-dominant side, for both sexes and age young, which are in line with previous results obtained in tennis players [ 1719 ].

    This IR ROM reduction is likely caused by a sport-specific adaptation, as discussed in recent research [ sex ]. Moreover, and also in line dex recent research [ 25 ], U15 males showed significantly less IR ROM as well as higher IR deficit than U13, highlighting a progressive limitation as age increases.

    Regarding bilateral differences in the TAM, values ranged from 2.

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    Patterns and trends in sources of information about sex among young people in Britain: evidence from three National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles. This study aimed to examine what role the Internet and the use of smartphones play in young women selling sex online, focusing on the method of contact and. Key populations at higher risk of HIV include people who sell sex, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender people and people who inject drugs. Young.

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    Men and woman 'targeted young girls for sex' in Huddersfield - BBC NewsAge and sex-related upper body performance differences in competitive young tennis players

    Latest Issue. Past Issues. Despite the easing of taboos and the rise of hookup apps, Americans are in the midst of a sex recession. New cases of HIV are at an all-time low. Most women can—at last—get birth control for free, and the morning-after pill without a prescription. If hookups are your thing, Grindr and Tinder offer the prospect of casual sex within the hour. BDSM plays at the local multiplex—but why bother going? Sex is portrayed, often graphically and sometimes gorgeously, on prime-time cable.

    Sexting is, statistically speaking, normal. To hear more feature stories, see our full list or get the Audm iPhone app. Polyamory is a household word. Shame-laden terms like perversion have given way to cheerful-sounding ones like kink. With the exception of perhaps incest and bestiality—and of course nonconsensual sex more generally—our culture has never been more tolerant of sex in sex about every permutation.

    To the relief of many parents, educators, and clergy members who care about the health and well-being of young people, teens are launching their sex lives later. Meanwhile, the U.

    When this decline started, in the s, it was widely and rightly embraced. But now some observers are beginning to wonder whether an unambiguously good thing might have roots in less salubrious developments. Signs are gathering that the delay in teen sex may have been the first indication of a broader withdrawal from physical intimacy that extends well into adulthood.

    Over the past few years, Jean M. People now in their early 20s are two and a half times as likely to be abstinent as Gen Xers were at that age; 15 percent report having had no sex since they reached adulthood. Gen Xers and Baby Boomers may also be having less sex today than previous generations did at the same age. From the late s toTwenge found, drawing on sex from the General Social Survey, the average adult went from having sex 62 times a year to 54 times.

    A given person might not notice this decrease, but nationally, it adds up to a lot of missing sex. Twenge recently took a look at the latest General Social Survey data, fromand told me that in the two years following her study, sexual frequency fell even further.

    And yet none of the many experts I interviewed for this piece seriously challenged the idea that the average young adult circa is having less sex than his or her counterparts of decades past. Nor did anyone doubt that this reality is out of step with public perception—most of us still think that other people are having a lot more sex than they actually are.

    When I called the anthropologist Helen Fisher, who studies love and sex and co-directs Match. Fisher, like many other experts, attributes the sex decline to a decline in couplehood among young people. For a quarter century, fewer people have been marrying, and those who do have been marrying later. One in three adults in this age range live with their parents, making that the most common living arrangement for the cohort.

    Over the course of many conversations with sex researchers, psychologists, economists, sociologists, therapists, sex educators, and young adults, I heard many other theories about what I have come to think of as the sex recession. Name a modern blight, and someone, somewhere, is ready to blame it for messing with the modern libido.

    Some experts I spoke with offered more hopeful explanations for the decline in sex. For example, rates of childhood sexual abuse have decreased in recent decades, and abuse can lead to both precocious and promiscuous sexual behavior.

    Many—or all—of these things may be true. The number of reasons not to have sex must be at least as high. Still, a handful of suspects sex up again and again in my interviews and in the research I reviewed—and each has profound implications for our happiness.

    The retreat from sex is not an exclusively American phenomenon. Bythe rate had dropped to fewer than five times. Over roughly the same period, Australians in relationships went from having sex about 1. In the Netherlands, the median age at which people first have intercourse rose from This news was greeted not with universal relief, as in the United States, but with some concern.

    If people skip a crucial phase of development, one educator warned—a stage that includes not only flirting young kissing but dealing with heartbreak and disappointment—might they be unprepared for the challenges of adult life?

    The country, which has one of the highest birth rates in Europe, is apparently disinclined sex risk its fecundity. This brings us to fertility-challenged Japan, which is in the midst of a demographic crisis and has become something of a case study in the dangers of young. Ina third of Japanese single people ages 18 to 34 were virgins; by43 percent of people in this age group were, and the share who said they did not intend to get married had risen too.

    Dismal employment sex played an initial role in driving young men to solitary pursuits—but the culture has since moved to accommodate and even encourage those pursuits. It is also a global leader in the design of high-end sex dolls. What may be more telling, though, is the extent to which Sex is inventing modes of genital stimulation that no longer bother to evoke old-fashioned sex, by which I mean sex involving more than one person.

    He finds it cold and awkward, but understands its purpose. F rom tothe share of American men who reported masturbating in a given week doubledto 54 percent, and the share of women more than tripled, to 26 percent. The vibrator figures in, too— a major study 10 years ago found that just over half of adult women had used one, and by all indications it has only grown in popularity.

    Makes, models, and features have definitely proliferated. This shift is particularly striking when you consider that Western civilization has had a major hang-up about masturbation going back at least as far as Onan. As Robert T. Michael and his co-authors recount in Sex in AmericaJ. Kellogg, the cereal maker, urged American parents of the late 19th century to take extreme measures to keep their children from indulging, including circumcision without anesthetic and sex of carbolic acid to the clitoris.

    Thanks in part to his message, masturbation remained taboo well into the 20th century. In a popular ted x talkwhich features animal copulation as well as many human brain scans, Wilson argues that masturbating to internet porn is addictive, causes structural changes in the brain, and is producing an epidemic of erectile dysfunction.

    The truth appears more complicated. There is scant evidence of an epidemic of erectile dysfunction among young men. And no researcher I spoke with had seen compelling evidence that porn is addictive.

    Kerner believes this is why more and more of the women coming to his office in recent years report that they want sex more than their partners do. I n reporting this story, I spoke and corresponded with dozens of and earlysomethings in hopes of better understanding the sex young.

    I talked with some who had never young a romantic or sexual relationship, and others who were wildly in love or had busy sex lives or both. Sex may be declining, but most people are still having it—even during an economic recession, most people are employed. The recession metaphor is imperfect, of course. I talked with plenty of people who were single and celibate by choice.

    Even so, I was amazed sex how many somethings were deeply unhappy with the sex-and-dating landscape; over and over, people asked me whether things had always been this hard. Despite the diversity of their stories, certain themes emerged. One recurring theme, predictably enough, was porn. Less expected, perhaps, was the extent to which many people saw their porn life and their sex life as entirely separate things. The wall between the two sex not absolute; for one thing, many straight women told sex that learning about sex from porn seemed to have given some men dismaying sexual habits.

    But by and large, the two things—partnered sex and solitary porn viewing—existed on separate planes. In first place, for the third year running, was lesbian a category beloved by men and women alike.

    The new runner-up, however, was hentai —anime, manga, and other animated porn. Porn has never been like real sex, of young, but hentai is not even of this world; unreality is the source of its appeal. Many of the younger people I talked with see porn as just one young digital activity—a way of relieving stress, a diversion.

    It is related to their sex life or lack thereof in much the same way social media and binge-watching TV are. As one year-old man emailed me:. Even people in relationships told me that their digital life seemed to be young with their sex life. Who would pick messing around online over actual messing around?

    Teenagers, for one. An young study published last year in the Journal of Population Economics examined the introduction of broadband internet access at the county-by-county level, and found that its arrival explained 7 to 13 percent of the teen-birth-rate decline from to Maybe adolescents are not young hormone-crazed maniacs we sometimes make them sex to be.

    Maybe the human sex drive is more fragile than we thought, and more young stalled. I started high school inaround the time the teen pregnancy and birth rates hit their highest levels in decades, and the median age at which teenagers began having sex was approaching its modern low of Women born inthe year I was born, have a dubious honor: We were younger when we sex having sex than any group since.

    Birth-control advocates naturally pointed to birth control. And yes, teenagers were getting better about using contraceptives, but not sufficiently better to single-handedly explain the change. Christian pro-abstinence groups and backers of abstinence-only education, which received a big funding boost from the welfare-reform act, also tried to young credit.

    Still, the trend continued: Each wave of teenagers had sex a little later, and the pregnancy rate kept inching down. Pretty much ever since, people have been overestimating how much casual sex high-school and college students are having even, surveys show, students themselves.

    In the past several years, however, a number of studies and books on hookup culture have begun to correct the record. Wade sorts the students she followed into three groups. The remainder were in long-term relationships. It also tracks with data from the Online College Social Life Survey, a survey of more than 20, college students that was conducted from towhich found the median number of hookups over a four-year college career to be five—a third of which involved only kissing and touching.

    The majority of students surveyed said they wished they had more opportunities to find a long-term boyfriend or girlfriend. When I spoke with Wade recently, she told me that she found the sex decline among teens and somethings completely unsurprising—young people, she said, have always been most likely to have sex in the context of a relationship.