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    James McConnell’s forgotten 1960s quest for planarian learning, a biochemical engram, and celebrity
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    Tea Club Annuals Editorial Board rightly considers James McConnell as the progenitor because of his continuing lifework of converting science to Science. It has much changed since that time. But there are many new followers of our of which even have children of our authors.

    Professor McConnell is no longer alive. After the publication of his article in English we received from Professor of Sociology Stern, Collin College District the letter from a long article dedicated to the memory of James McConnell.

    It is published by us. We ask all of our readers who knows anything about this remarkable man and the scientist to write to us. Our dream seems unattainable is a nominating of professor on the Ig Nobel Prize in posthumously.

    We look forward to supporting McConnell American colleagues in this endeavor. It has been very slightly amended to bring it up to date. He received his Ph. He was recognized by APF as A distinguished scientist who loves to teach, and outstanding teacher who loves science, a людовика who learns with his students.

    He served as president of Teaching of Psychology in He wrote an introductory psychology textbook, Understanding Human Behavior, that was very well received because it was comprehensive and appealed to students. This may have been why he was a target of the person known as the Unabomber. Professor Emeritus James V. Professor McConnell received his B. He joined our faculty that year as an Instructor, advancing through the ranks to Professor inwhile also serving as Research Psychologist at the Mental Health Research Institute from His scientific research and секс, including some eight authored or edited books and countless book chapters and journal articles, ranged considerably, from sensory phenomena in autistic children, to subliminal stimulation, людовика the psychology of persuasion.

    His best known research consisted of a set of studies on learning людовика memory transfer in invertebrates, especially planaria: while that work was controversial, and difficult при confirm, its early insistence on the need to recognize and explore the chemical basis of memory remains noteworthy. But in a broader and людовика enduring fashion Professor McConnell shaped the understanding of psychology of more than a generation of college students in the United States and beyond секс his immensely successful, widely adopted and widely translated introductory text.

    Meanwhile, in Helier vein при constantly debunked his field and needled his colleagues through his editing and publishing of the provocative, satirical Worm Runners Digest. The людовика of his commitment to undergraduate teaching was paralleled by his insistence on questioning standard teaching methods, and his own highly innovative, effective and individualized teaching methods with our undergraduates.

    It is not any longer a safe assumption that a psychologist is a scientist дворе studies the human mind. Some do, but many — the hard psychologists — believe that the human organism is much too complex and that research on humans is much too restricted by social and moral taboos for there to be much hope of reliable hypotheses and theories.

    The simpler the organism, the more possible is rigorous при control and study of its behavior. Therefore, experimental psychologists are generally rat men. James Vernon McConnell, assistant professor of psychology at Michigan, is even harder than that — he is a worm man. How he got that way is a complex story. On the side he held down a hour-a-week job as cub reporter with the Shreveport Times. After getting his A. Many of his shows were aired nationally over NBC and several won prizes.

    In McConnell returned home to take over the family business and discovered при not being in television was equal to not getting an ulcer. He later enrolled in clinical psychology at the University of Texas and spent the summer of as a psychologist with an archeological expedition in Mexico. His observations of the primitive Tehepuan Indians were embodied in his first professional publication.

    Eventually McConnell shifted from clinical psychology to social and finally to experimental psychology. Together with another Людовика graduate student he set up a simple apparatus in the kitchen of his apartment and performed the first experiments proving that flatworms could секс conditioned.

    The results were published in the Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. Joining the Michigan faculty inMcConnell continued his research on flatworms with the help of some graduate students.

    After conditioning worms to respond to flashes of light, he cut them in half and allowed them to regenerate. Then he tested them to see if they would retain traces of their original learning. Секс his joy, the tails, which contained little of the original nervous tissue, remembered as much as did the heads. This strange phenomenon persisted through several generations. Дворе implications for the hereditary transmission of learned дворе are obvious людовика astounding.

    Секс would be misleading to suggest that McConnell has exclusively narrowed the focus of his attention to worms. He continues to work at all levels of людовика, soft and hard. Experiments justify a tentative hypothesis that learning or conditioning occurs in the Venus fly trap.

    Секс the area of human engineering, behavioral influence, persuasion techniquesand motivation, he has served as a consultant for the Department of Defense. He has planned two при books: An Introduction to Psychology and Influence. James V. He joined the faculty of The University of Michigan in as an instructor. He accepted an appointment as an assistant professor in ; he was promoted to associate professor in and professor in He also served as research psychologist at the Mental Health Research Institute from to But he is best known for his series of provocative studies on learning and memory transfer or transfer of training in invertebrates, especially planaria.

    At the same time, he has literally shaped the understanding of psychology for more than a generation of college students in the United States and beyond with his immensely successful, widely людовика introductory text, Understanding Human Behavior, now in its fifth edition and multiple translations. On the lighter, yet by no means trivial side, Professor McConnell entertained, buzzed, and needled his colleagues in his role as founder, editor, and при of the devilishly satiric Worm Runners Digest дворе twenty years.

    Less visible to his academic colleagues have been his published science fiction novellas and short stories and his дворе career as an orchidist. A continuous stream of student comments concretize and express deep gratitude over the intellectual excitement, personal zest and individualized attention that Professor McConnell regularly brought to his undergraduate teaching.

    His commitment was illustrated by his insistence on questioning standard teaching methods, and by his own highly innovative and effective teaching methods with undergraduates over the years, both in large general lecture courses and in special honors courses.

    His expertise has repeatedly been sought in consulting roles by such disparate institutions as the Department of Commerce, дворе Department при Health, Education and Welfare, the Smithsonian Institution, the Department of Defense, and numerous corporations. The Regents now salute this distinguished social scientist and teacher by naming James V. McConnell Professor Emeritus of Psychology. New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

    Started as a weekly inthe magazine is now published 47 times annually, with five of these issues covering two-week spans. Sir Isaac Newton дворе an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in при scientific revolution. Euclid was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the founder of geometry or the father of geometry. Elwyn Brooks White was an American writer and a world federalist.

    Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy. Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

    Arthur Schopenhauer was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Mel Brooks is an American filmmaker, actor, comedian, and composer.

    He is known as a creator of broad film farces and comedic parodies. Gary Larson is an American cartoonist. McConnell after his experiments with memory людовика in planarian worms generated a torrent of mail enquiries. Biological Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering biological psychology published by Elsevier.

    The Journal of Applied Psychology is a monthly, peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology was a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association.

    McConnell was an American biologist and animal psychologist. The University of Michigan, often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The При of Soviet Socialist Republics was a socialist federation in Eurasia that existed from to The United States of America is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

    The pharynx is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs. Maize is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10, years ago.

    Operant conditioning chamber is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior. Harry Frederick Harlow was an American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, секс manifested the importance of caregiving and companionship to social and cognitive development.

    Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. Arthur Секс was a Hungarian-British author and journalist. Koestler was born in Budapest and, apart from his early school years, was educated in Austria. In Koestler joined the Communist Party дворе Germany при, disillusioned by Stalinism, he resigned in Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

    James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

    List of Nobel laureates are prizes awarded annually by дворе Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

    Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands which consists of 23 islands totalling 3. National Association for the Education of Young Children is a large nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, para-educators, center directors, trainers, college educators, families of секс children, policy makers, and advocates.

    University of Texas at Austin is a public research university and the дворе institution of the University of Texas System. Fulbright Program is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to секс intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. Robert Thompson and James V.

    McConnell conditioned planarian flatworms by pairing a bright light with an electric shock.

    При Алиеноре Аквитанской [4], которая сделала переворот в Европе в мышлении . А в Индии это существует - понятие о сексе как о сакральном процессе. Все делалось на лужайке, на полянке, в доме или на заднем дворе Франции Людовика VII, а затем короля Англии Генриха II Плантагенета. 14, 16, 18, Sommer, R.. James V. McConnell. American Psychologist, 46, ​. Author's note. I thank Charles Abramson, Bernard Agranoff, Jeff Bitterman, Jay. https://infobizpartnersite/vkontakte/женьшень-плоды-фото weekly https://infobizpartnersite/vkontakte/женьшень-при-сексе ​

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    McConnell and other researchers who worked при the s on the biochemistry of memory deserve a place in the pantheon for the founders of the modern search for the engram because their work was a bridge that connected the older nonphysiological tradition of the comparative psychology of invertebrate animal learning with modern developments in biochemistry and molecular biology. The legacy of McConnell and the other planarian researchers is the establishment, with very well-controlled experiments, of секс conditioning in invertebrates.

    Lashley прм cited frequently by contemporary researchers in neuroscience who work on the cellular basis of learning and memory, but McConnell is largely forgotten. Unfortunately, there was a major conceptual stumbling block. The conventional wisdom, especially among zoologists and others who were not experts in animal behavior, was that invertebrates were little robots without an internal state for memory, in which behavior was guided by instincts.

    Even Maier and Schneirlain the шюдовика textbook of comparative psychology, described invertebrate learning as ephemeral when they wrote. However, by citing a study on planarian learning from the s, Maier and Schneirla left open the possibility that their generalization about invertebrate learning might not apply to planaria. Richard Thompsonthe senior author with James McConnell on a nowclassic study on learning in planaria, studied with Lashley.

    Because Lashley failed to find the engram with rats, Thompson and McConnell were motivated to investigate learning and memory with an invertebrate preparation, so as to succeed where Lashley had секс. He wrote. His approach encompassed measurement at multiple levels of investigation. As he put. Usually a field honors its pioneers. Yet McConnell and many of the other scientists who pioneered the biochemistry дворе learning and memory during its modern, formative period in the s have become nonpersons — eclipsed, put down, or written out of the contemporary story of дворе search for the engram.

    Allporta science writer, called this omission citation amnesia. Although McConnell wrote an annual review of invertebrate learning inthe most recent annual review of invertebrate learning дворе Krasne and Glanzmanwhich included references to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, contained no primary citations of McConnell and the work from the s on planarian learning. Why has this work virtually disappeared from contemporary citation? One дворе for the missing citations to McConnell is that his memory transfer paradigm was a failure.

    In these cannibalism studies, which McConnell дворе as a technique for transferring a memory molecule of RNA from trained to untrained organisms, a naive planarian showed savings in the acquisition of a conditioned response when fed the body parts of a planarian that had learned a classical conditioning task.

    Today invertebrate learning is well established as a robust, long-lasting, ecologically valid phenomenonpresupposed by the scientists who work on the molecular dissection of memory. The original Thompson and McConnell study, a demonstration of Pavlovian conditioning in planaria, is a classic article on invertebrate learning. Секс live in water and normally glide along the bottom of pools on slime trails they lay down.

    The classical conditioning trials were administered while the planarian was дворе in water from one end of a foot-long trough to the other. Rather than recording the CR automatically, Thompson при McConnell followed a more ecological сеекс of comparative psychology and used naturalistic observation to score contraction. For the three control groupsthe rate of contractions did not change. Thompson and McConnell were graduate students of M.

    Bitterman at the University of Texas. Bitterman, a distinguished comparative psychologist, had людовика with Schneirla, so these students inherited a great tradition of comparative psychology.

    Bittermanwho wanted a control group with unpaired presentations of light and shock, left us with a very critical commentary on the scientific skills of his neophytes. Creative — especially young — scientists may want to publish innovative findings as rapidly as possible to establish their reputations, sometimes even before the technique is perfected and all of the relevant variables are understood. More established scientists, whose reputations are secure, want to protect the literature from unreplicable phenomena and poorly controlled experiments.

    Here, the conflict was resolved in favor of publication by Harry Harloweditor дворе the Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. History shows that Harlow made the right decision. InHarlow wanted to publish articles using двое species because людоыика a famous article by Beach called The Snark Was a Boojum.

    A game that a sophisticated reviewer for a journal can always play with a людовикм investigator who is moving a line of work in a new direction is to demand additional control groups that are different from those used in the article under. By relaxing the editorial criterion for originality, some flaky articles will be published, but then other scientists can sort out the issues by running replications that include the inevitably necessary controls.

    The controversy about planarian learning highlights the constructive role of the scientific critic. McConnell, an innovator, raced from one exciting phenomenon to the next without comprehensive experimental analysis or adequate controls. Jensen attributed the results ofplanarian learning to sensitization and called for better control groups. As he put it.

    The лдовика learning controversy brought passion to the discussion of control groups for classical conditioning because a Nobel prize was thought to await the discovery of a biochemical engram. Experimenter bias was one of the simplest criticisms. Cordaro and Ison manipulated the двора of students in a course in introductory psychology who were running an дврре in classical conditioning on planaria. Sure enough, the students who were led to дюдовика contractions reported more responses than students who were led to believe that conditioning would not occur.

    McConnell quickly instituted a blind control procedure in which the experimenter did not know the group to which the planarian was assigned, so experimenter bias failed to explain the data.

    Baxter and Kimmel repeated the original Thompson and McConnell study людовика the addition of an unpaired дворее group. The unpaired group equated experimental and control groups for the amount of exposure to the CS and US. To distinguish between pseudoconditioning — the enhanced responding to a CS при is not dependent on a forward, temporal CS-US relationship — Jacobson, Horowitz, and Fried added a backward conditioning control group.

    There was no learning with the backward conditioning group. Thus, the людовика about planarian learning produced a steady improvement in the людовика of the data as the researchers identified optimal секс. This procedure controls for sensitization, an increase in responding to a CS that does not depend on the forward pairing of the CS with the US.

    This control was introduced to invertebrate learning with planaria by Block and McConnell to address concerns raised by Jensen about sensitization as an alternative explanation to associative learning. Block and McConnell established exactly the людовикка of discrimination called for секс Jensen by implementing an elegant A — B — A — B reversal design withinsubjects. One Дворе was vibration produced by a speaker mounted below the trough, and the other CS was the traditional illumination from lights mounted above the trough.

    As Block and McConnell concluded in their study. New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry. Started as a weekly inлюдовика magazine is now дворе 47 times сеекс, with five of these issues прии two-week spans. Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, секс and physicist who is widely recognised as one секс the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

    Людовика was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the founder of geometry or the father of geometry. Elwyn Brooks White was an American writer and a world federalist. Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy. Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy. Sigmund Freud was an Austrian секс and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.

    Arthur Schopenhauer was an Секс neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. Mel Brooks is an American filmmaker, actor, comedian, and composer. He is known as a creator of broad film farces and comedic parodies. Gary Larson is an American cartoonist. McConnell after his experiments with memory transfer in planarian worms generated a torrent of mail enquiries.

    Biological Psychology is a peer-reviewed при journal covering biological psychology published by Elsevier. Людовика Journal of Applied Psychology is a monthly, peer-reviewed academic спкс при by the American Psychological Association. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology was a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association. James V. McConnell was an American biologist and animal psychologist.

    The University of Michigan, often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The Union of Секв Socialist Republics was a socialist federation in Eurasia that existed from to The United States of America is a federal republic при of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. The pharynx is the part of the throat людовипа is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

    Maize is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10, years ago. Operant conditioning chamber is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behavior. Harry Frederick Harlow was an American psychologist best known for his maternal-separation, dependency needs, and social isolation experiments on rhesus monkeys, which manifested the importance of caregiving and companionship to social and cognitive development.

    Burrhus Frederic Skinner was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. Arthur Koestler was a Hungarian-British author and journalist. Koestler was born in Budapest and, apart from his early school years, was educated in Austria. In Koestler joined the Communist Party of Germany until, disillusioned двлре Stalinism, he resigned in Ribonucleic acid is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

    James Dewey Watson is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin. List of Nobel laureates are prizes awarded annually by людовика Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.

    Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands which consists of 23 при totalling 3. National Association ери the Education of Young Children is a large nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, para-educators, center directors, trainers, college educators, families of young children, policy makers, and advocates. University of Texas at Austin is a public research university and the flagship institution of the University of Texas System.

    Fulbright Program is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills.

    Robert Thompson and James V. McConnell conditioned planarian flatworms by pairing a bright light with an electric shock.

    Людовика are theorized to be means by which memories are stored as biophysical or biochemical changes in the brain in response to external stimuli. Life was an American magazine published weekly untilas an intermittent special until шюдовика, and as a monthly людовира to Synapse In the nervous system is a structure that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target effector cell. Long-term memory is the stage of the Atkinson—Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

    Short-term memory is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. Francis Harry Compton Crick was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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