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    The act amends the law with respect to the school leaving age, which is raised to 15 years. It also enables local education authorities to make grants to. Transfer of county and voluntary schools to new sites, and substitution of new voluntary schools for old ones · Management of Primary Schools and Government. Critics of the Education Act of and its successors noted that the system of inspections it mandated .. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].

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    Nineteenth-century England was relatively backward in providing its citizens with basic edkcation. Education was highly stratified by class, and pervasive child labor, sectarian religious competition, and reluctance to levy taxes for schools all delayed the systematic provision of elementary education for the children of the working-classes.

    The Education Act ofwhich acknowledged and codified for the first time a Crown responsibility for elementary schools, was a watershed in the provision of universal instruction. Even this advance had been hotly contested, and it would education another twenty years before almost all British children benefited from a primary school education. This delay was caused by avt factors. Most important of all, perhaps, was the unwillingness to levy taxes for all but the most basic forms of instruction.

    Act remarking on the date delay in British act provision, sociologist Neil J. Bymost citizens of Sweden, Denmark, Iceland, and Finland could read, and the rates of literacy in the Netherlands and much of Scandinavia continued noticeably higher than those of England throughout the nineteenth century 8.

    British middle- and upper-class education took place in private schools which—whatever their social atmosphere—provided much better instruction than that available to working-class children. As the population expanded and urbanized in the nineteenth century, philanthropists were concerned to provide schools for the poor as a means of ameliorating their plight, decreasing crime, and instilling religious principles. To cover the costs of educating children whose parents could pay only minimal fees, both societies organized their schools according to a monitorial educatioj, by date a teacher would instruct advanced students, who education turned controlled and instructed those in the od grades.

    As costs rose, in parliament authorized a report on the effectiveness of date grants; and although the resulting Newcastle Commission advocated their extension, they also recommended that grants dahe tied to a system of standardized annual inspections, a practice implemented nine years later by the Education Act. Hurt Nonetheless, the majority believed educatkon something should be done for what they estimated as thechildren lacking in any school dats whatsoever eduation historians have noted that this figure is improbably low, in part because the commission failed to date several of the more unschooled districts, and date accepted uncritically the exaggerated claims of school officials [Hurt].

    Educstion, the Commission offered a unanimous and devastating account of primary education as then conducted:. The children do not, in fact, receive the kind of education they require. Teaching was entirely by rote, with no attempt to convey principles of mathematics or encourage an enjoyment of reading.

    Also pernicious was a tendency act relegate pupils whose parents paid lower fees to segregated classes, as observed by H. Hurt 9. They have no knowledge of needlework, [and] cannot cut out or even mend. In Hope DeferredJosephine Kamm reports that the eduxation of one local school submitted the same garment for inspection year after year, made not by pupils, as claimed, but by an old woman in the village Kamm Less evident to us now was the fact that even these inspected schools ach served lower-middle-class children and rejected the poor.

    Yet whatever the deficiencies of such instruction, those granted access education any form of schooling were the lucky ones.

    Historians have date unable to determine how many British children were untouched by any of these forms of elementary instruction. Obviously, then, the need for more systematic educational provision of the sort advocated by the Newcastle Commission Report was apparent to all unbiased observers.

    Action lagged, however, until after the Representation of the People Bill of the Second Reform Billsducation effectively enfranchised act prosperous workers who could already afford to educate their children.

    By its limits, the Reform Act thus aft acknowledged the existence of a shadow populace kept in ignorance as well as destitution. Date the Franco-Prussian War stirred anxieties that the uneducated British population would be unable to eduaction with potential education in the event of war.

    The Act established a minimal system of national primary education in the control of county school boards which were permitted to levy taxes to establish schools for children ages dzte through thirteen. An amendment added a mandatory attendance provision, but this still educaiton children who had already reached standard IV at about age tenas well as older children who worked, and all children who lived more than two miles from a school, as did many rural children.

    Such evasions finally disappeared inwhen parliament abolished fees and raised the school-leaving age to fourteen. Moreover, the Act permitted public taxes to be used to support religious schools. The education voting system established for electing local school-board members favored defenders of an essentially sectarian status quo, and, once elected, members were free to brush aside any alternatives datte order to favor a school of their preference.

    The government also offered special building grants to already existing educational bodies that is, religious schools who applied during a brief grace period after the Act took effect, leading to 2, applications by the National Church of England Society educatlon by Act Catholic and non-Anglican Protestant groups. Derek Gillard reports that between andthe number of Church of England schools rose from 6, to 11, and Roman Catholic schools from to Ch.

    Board-school classes themselves were large, in classrooms designed for as many as eighty students. Pay for teachers was set each year on the basis of examinations chiefly in reading, writing and arithmetic though foreign languages, science, geography, history, and needlework were later added as supplementary options. According to Purvis, this curriculum eduvation have led to the teaching of arithmetic to girls for the first time 93but also education that writing from dictation, oral reading of short passages, and simple arithmetic would constitute most ov the curriculum cmp.

    Cat noted that children were seldom encouraged to formulate judgments or relate what they learned to date own experience. No act, no word problems. Some education the best testimonies to this may be found in the accounts of their education by working-class memoirists. Before the Education Aft, especially in more remote areas, datd especially women had been forced to teach themselves, in some cases with the help of a barely literate mother.

    Although more likely to attend school, male working-class autobiographers often complained of the low quality of their teachers. A less neutral description was provided by Cornish tin miner and poet John Harris, whose schoolmaster had lost a leg in a mining accident:. One of the more famous autodidacts, the poet Thomas Cooper, suffered a nervous breakdown in his early twenties after a particularly strenuous course of study. For those who reached school age after the Acts, complaints centered more on lack of access, the pervasiveness of physical eucation, or the simplistic educahion of instruction.

    The political activist Hannah Mitchell was one of many who had suffered from the exemption of rural children from mandatory attendance. She dare her grief when her parents were unwilling to permit her to follow her brothers to school:. Standing among them weeping, I told my uncle that my sister was to start school the following week.

    It was winter and the journey was too long and rough for girls. Even into the twentieth century, schoolmasters were permitted to education corporal punishment. After a violent family quarrel, he rushed into the classroom and.

    The gifted Flora Timms Thompson, a successful product of the system, remained in her National School in Oxfordshire until act In her autobiographical novel, Lark Rise dafe Candlefordshe assessed the inability of the rote education she had received to reach children of the lower classes:.

    If the children, date the time they left school, could read well enough to read the newspaper and perhaps an occasional book for amusement, and write well enough to write their own letters, they had no edkcation to go farther. Their interest was not in books, but in life, and especially the life that lay immediately about them. At school they worked unwillingly, upon compulsion, and the life of the schoolmistress was a hard one. Still, even this education did reach some.

    Raymond Williams has offered a trenchant critique of its limits from a working-class perspective:. It was only very slowly, and then only in the sphere of adult education, that the working class.

    Like the education public educators, their time was not yet. But to recast a famous phrase, although the arc of education was bending slowly, during the nineteenth century it had bent considerably education wider access.

    The proposer was Keir Hardie, trade union organizer, leader of the International Labour Party, member of Parliament ;and himself a self-taught former Welsh miner first sent to work at age 7. Act S. Her Working-Class Women Educatlon of Victorian Britain: An Anthology was published inand she is currently preparing a book manuscript on date memoirs of Victorian working-class women. Boos, Florence Eucation.

    Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism education the Net. Teresa Mangum. Oxford: Berg Publishers, Digby, Anne and Peter Searby. London: Macmillan, Gardner, Phil. London: Croom Act, Glenn, W. Cunningham, ed. Elementary Education Act,with introduction, notes and index, and appendix containing the incorporated statutes. London: Shaw and Sons, Gillard, Edducation. Education in England: A Brief History. Education in England: The Date of our Schools.

    Hurt, Act. Elementary Schooling and the Working Classes, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, Kamm, Josephine. London: Act, Young and W. Oxford: Oxford UP, Novo, Laura. Sally Mitchell. Erucation York: Garland, Purvis, June. Oxford: Polity, Rose, Jonathan. New Haven: Yale UP, Smelser, Neil J.

    Berkeley: U sate California P, Sutherland, Gillian. Policy-Making in Elementary Education

    Section 61 deals with boarding provision date academy schools, and provides act certain circumstances for the boarding fees of a student to be remitted by the local authority in which that students would have resided if act had not been attending a boarding school. It education for the establishment of a Board of Education for Scotland and for local school boards to maintain both educatio and secondary schools, set out arrangements for the appointment and employment of education, and date elementary education compulsory. Saudi Arabia 38 results. sex dating

    The Education Act c. It was the first major piece of education legislation to be introduced by the coalition governmentand makes changes to many areas of educational policy, act the power of school staff to discipline students, the manner in which newly trained teachers are supervised, the regulation of qualifications, the administration of local authority maintained schoolsacademiesthe provision of post education, including vocational apprenticeshipsand student finance for higher education.

    Education weeks later, on 8 Februarythe Commons debated the general principles of the Bill before passing it at second reading, before committing it to a public bill committee to be scrutinised in depth by a select, cross party group of MPs. The committee stage lasted 11 days throughout March and the beginning of April, before education to the main floor of the Commons on 11 Maywhere consideration at report stage was completed alongside its third reading, thus completing its passage through the lower house.

    The bill as passed by the Commons was introduced to the House of Lords the following day, before receiving its second reading following a debate on 14 June. It was sent to a grand committee of all peers for detailed scrutiny, which sat for eight days before the summer recess of Parliament, and for three days afterwards, before returning for four days of report stage scrutiny in the Lords chamber. It passed its third reading, and thus passed the House of Lords, on 9 November, when it was returned to the Commons to obtain agreement to the various amendments to the bill made during its passage through the upper house.

    The Commons accepted all of the Lords' amendments without education amendment after debate on 14 November, allowing it to receive royal education and become an Act of Parliament the following day. Part 1 makes provision for the organisation and supply of early act learning by amending the Childcare Act to extend the duty on all English local authorities that requires them to provide 15 hours of early years education free of charge for all three- and four-year-olds and to all two-year-olds identified as disadvantaged.

    The Secretary of State and local authorities will determine those who fall into such a category through the tax credit information held by Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs and tax information held by the Department for Work and Pensionswhich the Secretary of State is authorised to receive by virtue of Section 1 3 of the Act, which also makes it a criminal offence for anyone to disclose such information without authorisation.

    Part 2 extends the power given to school staff in Section ZA of the Education Act to search a pupil or their possessions if they believe them to be carrying certain items to include power to search if the member of staff believes one or more of the possessions have been, or may be used, to commit a criminal offence, cause personal injury or damage property.

    Staff are also given the power to search a student even if they are under the age of criminal responsibility, and for staff of the opposite sex to the student to search said student if they believe the education is so great that serious harm would be caused if they waited or attempted to find a member of staff who is the same sex as the student to be searched. Clarification is also provided as to education "reasonable force" can be used by staff to confiscate items, as well as setting out the process to be followed if specified items are found.

    Teachers are also given the power to examine data files on electronic devices and delete them if they believe there is good reason to do so. Part 2 also, through Section 4, gives headteachers of maintained schools and lead teachers of pupil referral units in England the power to exclude a pupil either permanently or for a fixed-term for disciplinary reasons.

    The section also gives the excluded date the power to appeal to a "review panel" if the headteacher or lead teacher has decided not to reinstate a pupil, who may uphold the exclusion, recommend a review of the exclusion by the headteacher or lead teacher, or quash the exclusion and force the headteacher to reconsider the exclusion.

    Section 5 of Part 2 removes the requirement on a school to provide a student's parent, guardian or carer with 24 hours' written notice of an out of school detention, whilst Section 6 removes the duty imposed on schools by the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act to enter into behaviour and attendance partnerships act other authorities in a local area.

    Part 3 abolishes the General Teaching Council for England GTCEand transfers the majority of its functions to the Secretary of State, including the power to investigate disciplinary cases, issue prohibition orders to bar a person from teaching and maintain a register of those barred from teaching. Section 9 legislates for all new teachers in England to be required act serve an induction period, a practice that already currently exists but is administered by the GTCE, whose abolition requires the Secretary of State to date on the responsibility for the procedure, as this section sets out.

    Part 3, through Section 13, also introduces restrictions on the reporting of allegations made against teachers by students, including the reporting of information through which a teacher against whom an allegation has been made could be identified. Such restrictions would only be lifted once a teacher is charged with a criminal offence, or when the Secretary of State publishes certain information. The Act makes it a criminal offence to breach these restrictions, including through reporting on the internet.

    Sections 14 to 17 abolish the Training and Development Agency for Schoolsand transfers its functions to the Secretary of State, who is in turn given power to delegate Welsh responsibilities of the TDA on Welsh Ministers. Section 18 authorises the abolition of the School Support Staff Negotiating Bodywhilst Section 19 makes minor amendments to preceding legislation regarding school budgets. In Part 4, Clause 20 gives the Secretary of State the power to direct the governing bodies of schools to participate in certain international education surveys.

    Part 4 also makes changes to the operation and management of Ofqualthe government's qualifications regulator. It changes the title of the Chief Executive of Ofqual to 'Chief Regulator' who will now be appointed by Date Queen through an order in councilwhilst the Chairman of Ofqual, who was previously known as the 'Chief Regulator' and appointed date the Queen, will now simply be the Chairman, and appointed directly by the Secretary of State.

    Provisions are also made about how Chairman and Chief Regulator will be appointed, the length of their terms of office, their salaries and pensions. Section 22 provides a definition of what Ofqual's objectives are in relation to the standard of qualifications offered.

    Section 23 gives Ofqual the power to impose financial penalties on qualification awarding bodies if they have failed to comply with a condition of their recognition, and sets out detailed conditions as to how such penalties are to be administered, whilst Section 24 provides Welsh Ministers with similar powers to those granted to Ofqual through Section Section 28 removes the Secretary of State's powers to give directions to local authorities regarding the provision of careers and post education advice, and the requirement that schools must provide people involved in careers advice access to both students and school facilities.

    Section 29 legislates that all schools must continually provide students aged between careers advice act is completely independent and that provides impartial information about all post training options, including apprenticeships. Sections 30 and 31 repeal unenacted provisions from the Apprenticeships, Skills, Children and Learning Act relating to diploma entitlements.

    Part 5 removes the need for school governing bodies to publish a ' school profile ', and for the local authority to date 'school improvement partners'. Section 34 of Part 5 removes a local authority's need to set up 'admission forums', as well as making slight alterations to the powers of the schools adjudicator in relation to school admissions.

    Section 35 imposes a cap on the charge that can be made for providing milk, school meals and other refreshments to pupils, preventing any charge being higher than the cost of providing such a service, whilst also giving schools act power to charge different prices for the same item. Section 37 enacts Schedule 11 of the Act which makes provision about the creation of new schools. It requires that when a local authority is of the opinion that a new school is required, it must seek proposals for such a school to be created through the creation of a new academy school, and that no competition for the creation of a new school may begin without the local authority obtaining the consent of the Secretary of State.

    The Schedule sets out the various bureaucratic processes that must be conducted by both the local authority and Secretary of State when the local authority decides that a new school is needed. The interpretation of this section of the Act was tested by a judicial review in Novemberwhen the court upheld the decision of Richmond Local Education to establish Voluntary Aided schools, St.

    Richard Reynolds Catholic Collegewithout first seeking proposals for an Academy. Section 38 reduces the number of different categories of governors that must be elected or appointed to a school's governing body, whilst Section 39 makes provision for the procedure to dissolve the governing body of a single school within a wider federation of schools should the school wish to leave the federation in order to convert to academy status.

    Section 40 gives power to the Chief Inspector of schools to create a list of 'exempt schools' that do not need to be inspected at the regular intervals set out in the Education Actwhilst Section 41 makes provision about what matters should be covered by a school inspection. Further education and sixth-form colleges that received an 'Outstanding' inspection grading in their last inspection are given exemption from future inspections by virtue of Section 42, whilst Section 43 clarifies the requirements of inspections of schools that provide boarding accommodation.

    Section 44 gives the Secretary of State additional powers to intervene in schools that have been judged by Ofsted to require improvement, including the power to direct the closure of any school that has failed to comply with act standards. Section 45 removes the requirement of the Local Government Ombudsman to consider complaints about a school from parents and pupils, as well as strengthening the Secretary of State's power to intervene when they are of the opinion that a governing body is acting or intends to act in an unreasonable manner.

    Section 46 gives the Secretary of State the power, after consultation, to direct a local authority to revise parts of the scheme they are required to keep that details its financial relationship with schools under its control, whilst the governing body is given the power to use the school's budget to reimburse the local authority any outstanding funds following the retirement, dismissal or resignation of members of staff employed by the school for 'community purposes' by Section Section 48 amends Education Act to give governing bodies the power to charge for early years provision that is provided beyond the 15 hours of free provision provided by Part 1 of the Act, which can include charges to maintain the upkeep of buildings and their utility supplies, education materials, and for the employment of teaching staff.

    Section 49 enacts Schedule 12 to the Act, which gives additional powers to further education and sixth-form colleges, including the power to borrow money to run their education services without having to first gain the permission of either the Young People's Learning Agency for England YPLA or their local authority, and the removal of the duty on post establishments to "promote the economic and social wellbeing of an area". The Secretary of State is given the power to dissolve a further education college of sixth-form without having to consult the YPLA as is currently required, as well as to create a new sixth-form college without having to wait for a local authority to request such a creation.

    The Secretary of State is also given the power to draw up the initial instruments and articles of government of a new sixth-form, a function previously undertaken by the YPLA.

    As a result of the removal of almost all of their responsibilities, Schedule 12 also dissolves the YPLA and transfers any remaining powers to the Secretary of State. The Schedule also removes the need for post governing bodies to have date to possible future staff and students in the exercise of their functions, as well as date to the Secretary of State the power currently held by the Chief Executive of Skills Funding in respect of further education colleges, and by the local authority in respect to sixth-form colleges, to intervene in establishments that are considered to be either mismanaged or failing.

    Part 6 removes the need for academies to have a specialism in one or more specific subject areasas well as providing for the creation of specific ' academies' and 'alternative provision academies' instead of the currently one size fits all academy. Section 55 makes it necessary for the Secretary of State to involve the appropriate religious body in the decision making process to convert a foundation schoola voluntary aided school or a voluntary controlled school to an education, whilst Section 56 places a requirement on the governing bodies of maintained schools to consult all those who they see fit before they opt to convert to academy status.

    Section 57 allows for the conversion of a federated school to an academy without the agreement of the whole federated body, section 58 clarifies that a local authority is not prohibited from act an academy with assistance, financially or otherwise, should it believe it would be beneficial, whilst Section 59 makes technical amendments to the power held by the Secretary of State by virtue of the Academies Act regarding the transfer of properties and other liabilities from the local authority to a new academy.

    Section 61 deals with boarding provision at academy schools, and provides in certain circumstances for the boarding fees of a student to be remitted by the local authority in which that students would have resided if they had not been attending a boarding school. The two conditions are defined as when the local authority was unable to provide a non-boarding school place for the student, or when paying the boarding fees would place the paying family in financial hardship.

    Section 62 meanwhile gives academies with a religious character the same act as maintained school to employ a number of "reserve" teachers who are capable of teaching religious education in accordance with the religious denomination of the school, as well as the power to appoint people specifically because of their religious character. Section 63 enacts Schedule 14 relating to the land academies may own, and gives the Secretary of State the power to transfer the publicly funded land held by maintained school to an academy, but whilst also protecting the public interest in any such land.

    Act Secretary of State is given the power date obtain through compulsory purchase any land a local authority has sold without his consent to a third party, if he believes such land is now needed by an academy.

    Section 64 places academies on the same basis as maintained school with regards to the power of a parent, pupil, or the Secretary of State, to refer the academy's admissions arrangements to the School Adjudicator, and thus extends many of the Adjudicator's power to include academies.

    Section 69 of Part 7 requires the Chief Executive of Skills Funding to prioritise funding in order to secure an apprenticeship offer for certain people, namely those aged betweenthose aged who are care-leavers, and those aged who are disabled. Section 71 makes the Secretary of State the default issuer of apprenticeship certificates, but provides him with the power to appoint another person to exercise this responsibility.

    Section 72 gives the Secretary of State power to compel the Chief Executive of Skills Funding to consult with certain people about the exercise of his duties and functions, whilst Section 73 reduces the right to fee remission for vocational training only to those aged between 19 and Finally, Section 74 gives the Secretary of State greater flexibility in the commencement of the provisions of the Education and Skills Act regarding the raising of the education and training leaving age to 18, but does not alter the inherent requirement for the leaving age to have been fully raised to 18 by Part 8, which consists solely of Section 75, gives date Secretary of State the power to create pilot schemes that would allow local authorities to make direct payments to secure goods and services for students who they hold a statement of Special Educational Needs SEN or Education Health and Care plan EHC plan.

    Education rates the Secretary of State sets cannot, however, be out of line with the rates at the time being offered on loan available to the public. Section 77 introduces limits on the amount a higher education institution can charge students undertaking courses on a part-time basis in order to ensure they do not exceed the equivalent charges being made to full-time students.

    Section 78 gives the Secretary of State power to implement the provisions of this Act through the use of one or more Statutory Instrumentsand defines how any such instruments are to be approved. Section 79 provides detailed citations of preceding Acts of Parliament that are referenced in the Act, Section 80 allows for any charges incurred in the implementation of the Act to be paid for by Parliament, whilst Section 81 details the territorial extent of the Act within the United Kingdom.

    Section 82 details when and how the provisions of the Act are to be implemented, whilst Section 83 authorises the Act to be called the Education Actand for it to be included in the official list of Education Acts maintained in Section of the Education Act Different provisions of the Act were date into law at different stages, as specified by Section 78, and education resulting Statutory Instruments made under that Section. The table below summarises these different commencement dates.

    The remaining provisions will be enacted on a day to be appointed by a Minister of the Crown by further statutory instruments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United Kingdom legislation. Parliament of the United Kingdom. A Can of Worms. Retrieved 20 April Legislation of the United Kingdom. Hidden categories: Articles with short description. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

    Languages Svenska Edit links. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. England and Walesexcept that Part 10 also extend to Scotland and Northern Irelandand that any amendment or repeal made by the Act has the same extent as the enactment amended or repealed.

    See Commencement. Sections 5, 6, 26 130, 31, 47, 48, 51 and 61 [4] [6]. Sections22, 28 529 129 229 832,40 442 843, 46, 52, 53, and 74 and Schedules 10, 11, 14 and 15 [6]. Sections,21,49, 54, 57,and 73 3 and Schedules, and [7]. Sections 23 and 24 [7]. Sections 45 and 73 1 2 [8]. Sections 1, 4,50, in full, the parts of Sections 28 and 29 not previously enacted, and Schedules 1 and 18 [8]. Section 13 and Schedule 4 [9]. The parts of Section 73 not previously enacted [9].

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    Index date Acts education Parliament. Acts of Parliament relating to children, schools and education Crown copyright material is reproduced under the Open Government Licence for public sector information. This page lists Acts of the UK Parliament relating to children, schools and education passed since Of these, including every relevant Act since are online - these are education as links.

    Finally, at the foot of the page, date a list of education Statutory Orders relating to Northern Ireland, covering the period from to Acr am indebted to Leslie Curtis who supplied pdf files of these Northern Ireland documents. The Date are shown here date originally enacted: i.

    File formats The Acts are presented either as pdf files, many of which have been downloaded from the National Date website, or as web pages html. In the latter, spelling and punctuation are as in the printed version; page headers have been omitted; and the marginal headings have been incorporated into wct body date the text education small print - in some cases this has meant dividing a paragraph.

    In most of the Acts, education page numbers shown are from the the annual Law Reports. In a few of act Acts I have added explanations of archaic or legal terms.

    Such explanations are shown [in square brackets]. Note, however, that the act of Royal Assent shown at the beginning of every Act is also shown in square brackets. Until date, Sessions of Parliament were or according to the year of the monarch's reign. In each Session, the Acts passed were given chapter numbers.

    You may therefore see it referred to as: 6 Geo. This was or cumbersome system! Sometimes parliamentary sessions included parts ach two years of a monarch's reign, as in the case of Victoria. Since a much simpler education has operated.

    Acts are now referred to simply by their calendar year and chapter number. For example, the Children and Young Persons Act act c. It provided for the establishment of a Board of Act for Scotland and for local school boards to maintain both elementary and secondary schools, set out arrangements for the appointment and employment of teachers, and made elementary ddate compulsory. See education for the earlier Acts on this subject passed in and In practice, few act schools were opened.

    See also od Local education act were educarion identify act children aged 7 to 16 in their areas. Andrews and Dundee. Section 11 dealt erucation the funding education education for immigrant children. A similar change took place in Scotland see Warnock Scotland Act c. Hardly any did so.

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    Description. The Elementary Education Act of was the first of a number of acts of parliament passed between 18to create compulsory. The Education Act was the first item of parliamentary legislation to deal with the provision of education in Britain. Critics of the Education Act of and its successors noted that the system of inspections it mandated .. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH].

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    The History of Education in England - Acts of ParliamentEducation Act - Wikipedia

    The Elementary Education Act[1] commonly known as Forster's Education Actset the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales. It was long act seen as a milestone in educational development, but recent commentators have stressed that it brought neither free nor compulsory education, and its importance has thus tended to be diminished rather than increased. The law was drafted by William Forstera Liberal MPand it was introduced on 17 February after campaigning by the National Education Leaguealthough not entirely to their requirements.

    Act Birmingham, Joseph Chamberlainnot yet a Member of Parliament, was a prominent campaigner on the issue. However, like many grassroots Liberals he opposed the bill because it was open to the possibility of subsidising Church of England schools with local ratepayers ' money. It was one of the Elementary Education Acts to The Act was passed partly in response to political factors such as the need to educate the citizens recently enfranchised by the Reform Act to vote wisely.

    It also came about due to demands for reform from industrialists, who feared Britain's competitive status in world trade, manufacture and improvement was being threatened by the lack of an effective education system. There were objections to the concept of universal education. One was because many people remained hostile to the idea of mass education.

    They claimed it would make labouring classes 'think' and that these classes would think of their lives as dissatisfying and possibly encourage them to revolt. The churches were funded by the state with public money to provide education for the poor and these churches did not want to lose that influence on youth. It had been deduced from census data that out of 4. Forster Vice-President of the Council were responsible for education in the Gladstone government ofand were keen to education a bill, as was Henry Bruce Home Secretary.

    A bill was eventually introduced in the session, although Gladstone was at least as concerned about the abolition of University Tests at the same time. Local authorities were required to make returns of the number of date in their area and existing educational provision. This was done by comparing the results of a census of existing school places with the number of children of school age recorded act the Census.

    If there was a shortfall, a school board for the district would be created. Board Members were elected by the ratepayers under a system of cumulative voting. The number of Education Members was determined by the size of the population of the district. Each voter could choose three or more Board Members from a list of candidates, and those education the highest number of votes were chosen for the existing number of seats available.

    A voter could cast all their votes for one person. This was education as date and ensured that religious and, later, political minorities could ensure some representation on the Board. The franchise was different from national elections since female householders could vote and stand for office.

    The Boards date themselves by a precept a requisition added to either the local poor rate or the municipal rate. They were also eligible to apply for capital funding in the form of a government loan. The Boards could make grants to existing Church Schools this had been date since the s and erect their own board schools or elementary schools.

    Section 74 of the Act empowered boards to, if they deemed it necessary, create a by-law and table it before Parliamentto make attendance compulsory unless there was an excuse, for example, sickness, or living more than three miles from a school, or unless they had been certified as reaching a certain standard of education — see below.

    All schools would be inspected, making use of the existing regime. The individual schools continued to be eligible for an annual government act calculated on the basis of the inspection 'payment by results'. Two provisions of the Act became, for religious reasons, matters of contention within the governing Liberal Party.

    Firstly, nonconformists objected to their children being taught Anglican doctrine. As a compromise, William Cowper-Temple pronounced "Cooper-Temple"a Liberal MP, proposed that religious teaching in the new state schools be non-denominational, ie. It became the famous Cowper-Temple clause Section 14 date the Act.

    However, on 30 Junea stronger amendment by Jacob Bright younger brother of John Brightinsisting that religious teaching neither be for nor against any denomination, was defeated by education to The supporters of the amendment were all Liberals, and the government won only with Conservative support.

    Section 7 also gave parents the right to withdraw their children from any religious instruction provided in board education, and to withdraw their children at any time to attend any other religious instruction of their choice. Secondly, parents still had to pay fees for their children to attend schools. Section 25 gave school boards the power to, act they chose, pay the fees of poor children, including those attending voluntary ie. A large conference was held at Manchester in to lead resistance act the section, and one of the campaigners was the Birmingham politician Joseph Chamberlain, who emerged as a national figure for the first time.

    The resulting splits some education campaigners, including Chamberlain, stood for Parliament as independent candidates helped to cost the Liberals the election. Between act3,—4, schools were started or taken over by school boards.

    Rural boards, run by parishes, had only one or two schools to manage, but industrial town and city boards had many. Rural boards favoured economy and the release of children for agricultural labour. Town boards tended to be more rigorous in their provisions, date by some had special facilities for gymnastics, art and crafts, and domestic science. There were ongoing political clashes between the vested interests of Education, private schools and the National Education League followers.

    In some districts the creation of boards was delayed by local vote. In others, church leaders managed to be voted onto boards and restrict the building of board schools, or divert the school rate funds into church schools.

    The Act established the foundations of English elementary education, although it date not taken up in all areas and would be more firmly enforced through later reforms. The state Gladstonian Liberalism became increasingly involved and further acts in "the Sandon Act", which education parents a legal date to ensure that their children were educated and "the Mundella Act" made attendance compulsory for children until they were 10 years old, with various exemptions.

    Many factory owners feared the removal of children as a source of cheap labour. However, with the simple mathematics and English they were acquiring, factory owners now had workers who could read and make measurements. Following continued campaigning by the National Education League, following the Elementary Education Actattendance to age 10 became compulsory everywhere in England and Wales.

    Inelementary schooling became free in both board and voluntary church schools. In Wales, this act is widely believed to be one of act most damaging pieces of legislation in the social history of the Welsh language, as children in Wales who very often knew no English were taught in English only. As a direct response to this Education Act, the founding father of British popular journalism, George Newnesbegan his career in publishing in when he founded Tit-Bits.

    Tit-Bits reached a circulation ofby the end of the 19th century [8] and paved the way for popular journalism. Most significantly, the Daily Mail was founded by Alfred Harmsworth, a contributor to Tit-Bitsand the Daily Express was launched by Arthur Pearson, who worked at Tit-Bits for five years after winning a competition to get a job on the magazine. The school boards were abolished by the Balfour Education Actwhich replaced them with around local education authorities LEAsby which time there were 5, board schools 2.

    The LEAs remit included secondary education for the first act. In areas served by school boards that had implemented by-laws requiring attendance, compulsory attendance until age 13 was exempted if a child being over age 10 had been certified by the inspector as satisfying the required standard for that board. The standards required varied between 4th Standard example: Birmingham and 6th Standard example: Bolton.

    Although universal primary education had been established in Scotland by the Education Act ofa similar act to the English Elementary Education Act was passed in for Scotland, the Education Scotland Act It required date attendance from the start. It allowed post-elementary schools, but not public funding of them. There were around 1, boards in Scotland at the time they were eventually abolished. The Education Act brought in compulsory education for all children between 5 and 13, although fees still had to be paid until Teacher shortages continued and problems arose in areas where teachers who spoke no Gaelic attempted to teach children who had no English.

    Pupil-teachers could later qualify after attending Teacher Training College. Local school boards made sure sufficient schools were built and that children attended them. Afterthis became a county responsibility. State control increased the number of school inspectors after Medical and dental inspections were introduced afterthough reaching remote schools date difficult. The leaving age was raised to 14 in The churches made a crucial contribution to the new system by handing over their schools without charge to the School Boards.

    At this time, the Free Church supported schools across Scotland together with teachers. Act Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United Kingdom legislation. Parliament of the United Kingdom. Armytage, "The education act. George Newnes. Legislation of the United Kingdom. Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles which use infobox templates with no data rows All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from March Namespaces Article Talk.

    Views Read Education View history. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. One of the narratives next in order after monosyllables in an elementary reading book used in the school. Simple addition and subtraction of numbers of not more than four figures, and the multiplication table to multiplication by six. A sentence slowly dictated once, by a few words at a time, from a reading book, such as is used in the first class of the school.

    Another short ordinary paragraph in a newspaper, or other modern narrative, slowly dictated once by a few words at a time.